Activities Report - Enhancing community-based commercial forestry in Indonesia


No Title Researcher Info File
1 Project Brief : Summary of Key Findings

Abstract :

At the conclusion of a 5-year research and development project, the project team is in a position to summarise the key findings and lessons about what makes community-based commercial forestry (CBCF) work in Indonesia. As many smallholders already know, a successful forestry enterprise takes much more than growing trees. Reflecting the complexity of CBCF, the project explored the economic, institutional, market, policy, silviculture and social components of smallholder forestry – learning from the past, analysing the present, and forecasting about the future. The project team collaborated with tree growers, market brokers and contractors, company owners and field staff, program managers and policy-makers, industry analysts and researchers, to understand a wide range of perspectives about what makes CBCF successful.

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2021
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2 Communication and Dissemination Report

Abstract :

Project ‘Enhancing community-based commercial forestry in Indonesia’ (ACIAR Project No. FST/2015/040) is intended to identify how community-based forestry can increase the incomes of smallholders and the broader benefits from it to local communities and industries. All key stakeholders related to the commercial forestry sector were intended to be engaged. The project team identified the stakeholders as target for its communication and dissemination activities. Activities and achievements of the project need to be communicated in wider communities as an effort of dissemination and disclosure of project information. Various means have been done by the project related to this concern which are presented in this communication report.

Researcher :
Aneka Prawesti Suka S.Sos., M.SE, M.A.

Agus Purwanto


Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2021
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3 Paths to the Future: Foresight analysis of smallholder forestry in Indonesia

Abstract :

Indonesia’s economy is dynamic and expanding, but like any other country, it is not isolated from global economic shocks and challenges (e.g. the global recession in 2020 caused by the covid-19 pandemic). Looking ahead to what the context might be like for smallholder forestry, say in 2030, was an important activity undertaken by the project team. Investment in forestry is invariably long- term, particularly compared to many agricultural crops, so careful thought is required by smallholders, governments and processors to ensure their investment is likely to be successful.

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2021
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4 Economic and Social Dimensions of Smallholders’ Household: A survey to understand the livelihood context for commercial smallholder forestry in Indonesia

Abstract :

Although Indonesia has various policy initiatives designed to encourage smallholder forestry, it has not yet achieved its potential. For example, the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF) has the goal of supporting local communities to establish 12.7 million hectares (ha) of forests on state land by 2019, yet recent estimates indicate that only 15% of this target has been achieved. Not all districts, nor households within a district, have the same interest or potential to invest in forestry. Aggregated national-level data can mask the variability in household income, making it difficult to tailor national policies to be effective for rural development.  

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2021
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5 Evaluation of the Master TreeGrower Courses in Indonesia: Phase 2 2018-2020

Abstract :

A pilo t of the Ma ster TreeG rower (MTG) t rainin g c ourse was c o nducted in 5 proje ct sites duri ng th e fi rst pha se of the CBCF project (FST/2 008/0 30), namely: S umba wa (West Nusa Tenggara), Pati (Central Java), G unungk idul (Yogy aka rta), Bulukumba (South Sul awe si), an d Ko nawe (Sou thea st Su la wesi ). T he cour ses w ere conduc ted from March to Ju ne 201 4 a nd we re led b y WWF, Gadjah Mada University, FORDA Bogor and FORDA Makassar respectively

Researcher :
Dr Muktasam Abdurrahman

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2021
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6 Report of the ‘Policy Lab’ Workshop

Abstract :

Policy making is not a routine bureaucratic process, but a process that involves many actors and interests (Wibowo, Race and Curtis1 2012). Policy making is also often seen as a dynamic political process and an arena for battle of different interests, knowledge and ideas (Long2 2002). The policy making process is strongly influenced by the dynamics of local politics (Hyde et al 1996) and the global and national economic conditions. Similarly, the dynamics of externalities such as the above often strongly influence policy on community-based commercial forestry (O’Laughin3 2001).  

Researcher :
Aneka Prawesti Suka S.Sos., M.SE, M.A.

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2021
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7 Empowering Women in Community- Based Commercial Forestry through Master TreeGrower (MTG) Training

Abstract :

Typical forestry training for farmers in Indonesia usually attracts men as the majority of participants, yet several studies have found women often play a key role in silviculture, trading of timber and non-timber forest products, and local forest industries. Women's participation in formal raining in the forestry sector is low. There are several factors that can constrain women's involvement in forestry training. Firstly, the ‘double burden’ of women can cause a role conflict. On the one hand, women are culturally expected to fulfill many domestic responsibilities. On the other hand, women also fulfill roles and participate in activities in the public sphere. Conflict between domestic duties (such as cooking, caring for children, taking children to school) and public duties (such as attending training related to forestry) often forces women to have to choose, and women will usually prioritize their domestic duties.

Researcher :

Harsoyo, Silvi Nur Oktalina, Dwiko Budi Permadi,
Eko Bhakti Hardiyanto, Wiyono & Digby Race


Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2020
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8 Evaluation of the Farmer-to-Farmer Mentoring Trial

Abstract :

Although many agricultural extension researchers have highlighted the important influence that peers have on the adoption of farm practices, few authors propose strategies for how a program might utilise peer support and enhance its effectiveness. This report reviews a peer support trial delivered by the ‘Enhancing community-based commercial forestry in Indonesia’ project with the aim of improving forest management practices on farms.

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2020
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9 Financial models for smallholder sengon and teak plantings in the Pati district, Indonesia

Abstract :

President Widodo declared in 2014 a goal of establishing 12.7 million ha of social forestry established across Indonesia by 2019. Despite the ambitious targets, implementation has been slow and returns for smallholders variable. For most smallholders, any motivation to plant trees competes with their interest in planting short term food crops to provide the necessary cash flow to support a farming family’s daily needs. Moreover, a poor grasp of market dynamics often sees smallholders sell their trees when in need, rather than at the optimum time for financial returns. Even with the enormous potential for social forestry to address critical issues (e.g. tropical deforestation, rural poverty, industry demand for timber), its potential remains unrealised due to such constraints as poor understanding of silvicultural options to improve log quality and limited knowledge of the economics of smallholder timber production.

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2020
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10 Private Sector and Stakeholder Links for Enhancing Community-Based Commercial Forestry in Indonesia

Abstract :

The ACIAR funded project ‘Enhancing community-based commercial forestry (CBCF) in Indonesia’ (FST/2015/040) commenced in July 2016 for a 4.5 year period. The project aims to identify how CBCF can increase the incomes of smallholders and how the broader benefits from CBCF for local communities and industries can be scaled out. The first objective of the project was ‘to enhance the commercial benefits from CBCF for smallholders by strengthening their business networks’, with an intended output being a report to explain how to forge closer links between smallholders and the private sector businesses along the timber value chain

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2020
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11 Report of a Study Tour to Victoria – Australia: Some Key Lessons Expressed by the Participants

Abstract :

The second phase of the CBCF Project 'Enhancing community-based commercial forestry Indonesia' [FST/2015/040] has facilitated learning at the farm level at all project sites: Pati, Gunungkidul, Lampung, Bulukumba and Gorontalo. Farmers learnt through a series of Master TreeGrower (MTG) training courses conducted at these project sites, and even have changed their trees and farm management practices. A complement to this farmer learning approach, a Farmer to Farmer Mentoring (F2FM) trial was conducted in three project sites: Gunungkidul, Pati and Bulukumba. The evaluation of the F2FM trial confirmed the effectiveness of peer mentoring to facilitate farmers’ learning and changing farmers’ practices of tree and farm management.

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2020
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12 Adoption of Tree Farming by Smallholders in Pati and Bulukumba, Indonesia

Abstract :

The focus of this study is the adoption of commercial tree farming by smallholders and the land use changes they have engaged in since their first investment in trees. This report describes the characteristics of smallholders who grow trees, their farmland and the selected tree species (i.e. teak (Tectona grandis), sengon (Paraseriantes moluccana) and gmelina (Gmelina arborea). A survey of smallholders was conducted in two study sites – in the districts of Pati district (Central Java) and Bulukumba (South Sulawesi), Indonesia. The results revealed the adoption of tree farming by smallholders has resulted in a significant transition from agricultural crops to more forested landscapes. Informal sources of information (i.e. farmers, friends and relatives) had a profound impact on the adoption of tree growing, especially for tree species that had been established in the districts for more than 50 years (i.e. teak). Also, fast-growing trees (i.e. sengon and gmelina) have become widely adopted due to strong market, government and non- government incentives and support. However, recommended silviculture (i.e. fertilizing, pruning and thinning) was still not fully practiced by all smallholders. The motivation to grow commercial trees was a combination of short- and long-term economic, social and environmental reasons, but the economic objectives were typically unfulfilled. This resulted in the cessation of tree growing by some farmers. There is a need for further investigation of the rate of cessation of smallholder tree farming so accurate projections can be made about likely timber yields and concerns held by smallholders growing trees commercially can be addressed.

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2020
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13 Status of Forest and Timber Certification for Smallholder Growers in Indonesia

Abstract :

Forests have been certified since the early 1990s under a number of schemes to address the issues of global deforestation and forest degradation and to promote responsible forest management. Certification schemes have a set of principles, criteria and indicators related to the ecological, social and economic aspects of forest management. Independent bodies assess the compliance of forest management against the schemes (Romero et al. 2013).

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2019
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14 Policy Options for Enhancing Community-Based Commercial Forestry in Indonesia

Abstract :

Community-based forest management (CBFM) has been developed globally since the 1970s with various outcomes. In Indonesia CBFM policies began to be adopted and institutionalized in the 1980s. Indonesia is yet to achieve sustainable and equitable natural resource management, although some initiatives are developing community-based management alternatives. Over the past 40 years, the achievements of CBFM regimes have continued to expand across countries and regions with different political, historical, cultural and economic contexts. Some countries, such as Indonesia, have made major changes to forestry policy, through the introduction and institutionalization of CBFM

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2019
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15 Fostering the Community Plantation Forest (HTR) Program in Lampung and Gorontalo, Indonesia

Abstract :

The Community Plantation Forest (Hutan Tanaman Rakyat or HTR) program is one of the five schemes that comprise the ‘social forestry’ (SF) agenda developed by the Indonesian Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MoEF, Ministerial Decree No. 83/2016). The MoEF defines ‘social forestry’ as a land management system that involves forest management on state or community-owned land, whereby forests are managed to improve the welfare of local communities while also protecting environmental and cultural values.

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2019
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16 Analysis of Smallholder Timber Certification in Indonesia: Experiences from Lampung Province, Sumatra contrasted with those from from Pati District, Central Java and Bulukumba District-South Sulawesi

Abstract :

Forest and timber certification was designed to promote good forest governance by ensuring that forest resources are managed sustainably and legally. Forest certification (Smartwood certification system) was first applied in Indonesia around 1990 in Java to forests managed by Perhutani - a State-Owned Enterprise. Since then various certification systems have evolved including the voluntary global system operated by the Forestry Stewardship Council (FSC) starting in 1993, and the Indonesian Timber Legality Assurance System (TLAS), also known as Sistem Verifikasi Legalitas Kayu (SVLK) developed by the Ministry of Forestry (MOF) and first introduced in 2009. Under this system, companies and farmer organisations are issued S-LK certificates.

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2019
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17 Evaluation Report of Pilot Master Tree Grower (MTG) Training Courses

Abstract :

A Master TreeGrower initiative introduced through the Community-Base Commercial Forestry (CBCF) Project, an ACIAR Project No FST/2008/030 provides a new extension approach in Indonesia to promote smallholder effective learning. Seven MGT courses conducted at the five project sites through this project have demonstrated not only their effectiveness in promoting effective learning (Reid, R, Syafii, S., et al., 2014), but also effective in changing smallholders’ forestry practices. Recent evaluation studies conducted at Pati, Gunungkidul, and Bulukumba1 confirmed the roles of MTG courses in promoting smallholders’ forestry practices (in both silvicultural and marketing practices), not only at the MTG course participants, but also at the surrounding farmers.

Researcher :

Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2017
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18 Megatrends Affecting Smallholder Forestry in Indonesia

Abstract :

This discussion paper identifies eight megatrends playing out in Indonesia that may affect smallholder forestry, and concludes with some potential implications for smallholder forestry as starting points for further exploration and discussion. A megatrend is a significant shift in the condition of the environment, economy or society, the implications of which will unfold over the longer term. The indicative timeframe for this analysis is the year 2030, a horizon of less than 15 years.

Researcher :

Lisa Robins


Publisher : ACIAR FST/2015/040
Type : Laporan Kerjasama
Year : 2017
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